Question 9: Does the direction of emf provided by a battery depend on the direction of the current flowing through the battery?
The source of emf can be thought of as a pump (device) which raises the electric potential energy of the mobile charges at the expense of work being done which in the case of the battery is the chemical reaction whereas for a water pump it might be you turning a handle or the electrical energy from the line.
Within a source of emf ( like a battery) a chemical reaction occurs which moves the mobile charge carriers from a region where they have low electric potential energy to a region where they have a higher electric potential energy.(like water raised by a pump from lower potential to a higher potential at the cost of electricity etc). However, in the circuit when connected to a load, the current flows from higher potential to lower potential (like water flows from the water tank at the roof to the tape in the kitchen).
To summarize, the electric current flows from negative to the positive terminal while in the battery (source) the current by positive ions flows from negative to the positive terminal at the cost of energy. Therefore, the direction of emf provided by a battery doesn’t depend on the direction of the current flowing through the battery.
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