Looking into the equation of work, W = Fdcosθ, we see work is directly proportional to the force and displacement. Increasing force or displacement or both of them will increase the quantity of work and vice-versa. Similarly, work also depends on the cosine value of the angle between force and displacement vectors. For constant force and displacement, therefore, work will depend on the angle between force and displacement. If θ = 0°, cosθ = 1. This is the maximum value of the cosine of an angle. Therefore, work done is maximum. Similarly, if θ = 90°, cosθ = 0 and work will be zero. For θ = 180°, cosθ = – 1 and the numerical value of the work done is negative or minimum. Hence, for a constant force, work done will be maximum if force and displacement are in the same direction and minimum if the force and displacement are in the opposite directions.

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